The lungs are divided into two: the right lung and the left lung. These two halves are not the same size: the left lung is smaller than the right lung. The reason for this abnormality is leaving extra space for the heart. The lungs are protected by the rib cage, which is essentially made of 12 sets of ribs.
Ribs are connected to the spine and they go around the lungs to protect them from damage.
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The lungs are a pair of spongy, air-filled organs. The trachea helps the air that is inhaled into the lungs through smaller tubes, called bronchi.
Bronchi then divide into even smaller tubes, called bronchioles similar to bronchi but smaller. They end up being microscopic. The bronchioles end in microscopic air sacs called alveoli. The alveoli are the location where the oxygen is extracted from the air in the lungs. Small capillaries carry the oxygen into the circulatory system. Waste is also released through the alveoli.
It is also circulated to the alveoli to be breathed out.
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Carbon dioxide, a waste product of respiration, is circulated in the blood and delivered to the alveoli, where is eventually exhaled. The mucus is then swept up by cilia, small hairs that line the airways. Normally, you swallow this mucus without noticing. If you have a respiratory illness, your lungs may make too much mucus. The alveoli also contain immune cells called macrophages. A respiratory disorder may be temporary or chronic long term.
Some types may lead to, or be a sign of, lung disease. Common lung conditions include:. Asthma is the most common chronic lung condition. Allergic asthma typically begins in childhood.
Asthma attacks happen when the airways tighten and narrow, slowing down air flow. The lungs also become swollen and inflamed. Asthma can be triggered by an allergic reaction, pollution, exercise, other respiratory illness, and cold air. This chest infection happens in the main airways, the bronchi.
It may be due to a viral or bacterial infection. Acute bronchitis happens suddenly and can sometimes spread into the lungs from an upper respiratory tract infection, such as a common cold.
Morphology of the upper airways
This condition is also known as chronic bronchitis or emphysema. COPD gets worse over time. It may be caused by smoking, air pollution, chemicals, or a genetic condition. COPD often leads to disability and is the fourth most common cause of death in the U.
This is a chest infection deep in the bronchioles and alveoli. Pus and mucus can build up, and the lungs may swell.
Morphology of the upper airways
This makes it difficult to breathe. Pneumonia can happen to anyone. Young children, the elderly, smokers, and people who are ill are at higher risk. This bacterial infection is spread through air droplets from coughs and sneezes. Tuberculosis can be serious and lead to lung scarring. It may also stay in the body without causing symptoms or spread to other parts of the body. Respiratory or lung disorders can make it difficult to breathe. They are a common reason for doctor visits in most countries. See your doctor if you experience severe lung symptoms.
According to the American Lung Association , warning signs of lung disease include:. If you have a respiratory disorder, you may need tests to see how well your lungs are working. They also help to diagnose chronic lung illness. Some of these tests are routine for people with chronic illness such as asthma. Common lung function tests and scans include:. If you have a respiratory illness, your doctor may prescribe several types of treatment. These depend on the cause of your lung disorder. Treatments for respiratory conditions like COPD, asthma, and pneumonia often include breathing treatments and conditioning.
COPD treatments might also include medications and lifestyle changes. While your body has a built-in system to keep your lungs healthy, there are several important things you can do every day to help reduce your risk of lung disease or to ease symptoms:. Do you, or someone you care about, have an itching sensation in the lungs? Itchy lungs could be something simple and easy to address or it could be…. Psoriasis may be a risk factor for several lung illnesses.
Learn more about the warning signs and when to speak with your doctor.
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In , at 28 years old, Emily Bennett Taylor was diagnosed with stage 4 adenocarcinoma lung cancer. To treat it, her doctors removed her right lung. Lung scars typically result from an injury to the lung.http://lebibixomi.tk
Lungs: Facts, Function and Diseases
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